Ferns Take Hold
In the Mauna Ulu eruptions of 1969 to 1974, lava flowed down the flanks of Kilauea, south to the Pacific. The area covered by the flows during that period are still pretty bleak, and are only starting to show signs of life returning. Here some ferns have found a small niche in the wrinkles of pāhoehoe lava forming a miniature garden.
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